This model provides a framework for reflection before, during & after a learning experience. It is useful as an activity to discuss learning. It can also be used as a plan for a reflective journal, as part of an essay plan where personal reflection is required or in an action research project.
Reflection before, during & after a learning process:
Before an experience:
1. What do you think might happen?
2. What might be the challenges?
3. What do I need to know or do to be best prepared for these experiences?
During an experience:
1. What’s happening now, as you make rapid decisions?
2. Is it working out as I expected?
3. Am I dealing with the challenges well?
4. Is there anything I should do say or think to make the experience successful?
After an experience:
1. What are your insights immediately after, and/ or later when you have more emotional distance from the event?
2. In retrospect how did it go?
3. What did I particularly value and why?
4. Is there anything I would do differently before or during a similar event?
5. What have I learnt?
With large groups, you can either run this as a solo activity and then put students into groups to discuss/ adjust their decisions or you could have small-group discussions which contribute to a whole-group activity of generating one list
Your students may prefer Gibbs’ reflective model:
Schön, D (1983). The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.