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Intended Learning Outcome:

 To write reflectively about my learning journey


This model provides a framework for reflection before, during & after a learning experience. It is useful as an activity to discuss learning. It can also be used as a plan for a reflective journal, as part of an essay plan where personal reflection is required or in an action research project.



Reflection before, during & after a learning process:

Before an experience:

1. What do you think might happen?

2. What might be the challenges?

3. What do I need to know or do to be best prepared for these experiences?


During an experience:

1. What’s happening now, as you make rapid decisions?

2. Is it working out as I expected?

3. Am I dealing with the challenges well?

4. Is there anything I should do say or think to make the experience successful?


After an experience:

1. What are your insights immediately after, and/ or later when you have more emotional distance from the event?

2. In retrospect how did it go?

3. What did I particularly value and why?

4. Is there anything I would do differently before or during a similar event?

5. What have I learnt?



Large Group Teaching:

With large groups, you can either run this as a solo activity and then put students into groups to discuss/ adjust their decisions or you could have small-group discussions which contribute to a whole-group activity of generating one list

Online Teaching:


Students use the framework to guide them through their reflections which they can articulate.

Next Steps:

Links to other activities:

Your students may prefer Gibbs’ reflective model:

Further reading:


Schön, D (1983). The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.

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