Contributed by:


Intended Learning Outcome:

 To write reflectively about my learning journey


This model is useful for when you are going through a learning process that doesn’t necessarily have a defined end. It is useful as an activity to discuss learning. It can also be used as a plan for a reflective journal, as part of an essay plan where personal reflection is required or in an action research project.



1. Description of the event/situation/ experience

What happened?

When in the session did it occur?

Who did it involve?

2. Your Thoughts and Feelings

Consider before, during and after the event

3. Evaluation: was it a good or bad outcome?

Was it successful?

Was the overall experience good?

Did you achieve what you wanted to?

4. Analyse: why did it turn out the way it did?

What elements affected the outcome?

What were your aims & did you achieve them?

Why did you choose those aims?

5. Conclusion: what could you have done differently?

Could you have chosen an alternative approach?

If it was a positive outcome would you do the same again?

If it was a negative outcome what could you do to make it positive next time?

6. Action Plan: based on this experience how will you approach it next time?

What steps can you take to improve in the future?

Is there something you need to learn to be more effective?

If so where or how will you learn this? 



Large Group Teaching:

With large groups, you can either run this as a solo activity and then put students into groups to discuss/ adjust their decisions or you could have small-group discussions which contribute to a whole-group activity of generating one list

Online Teaching:


Students use the framework to guide them through their reflections which they can articulate.

Next Steps:

Links to other activities:

Your students may prefer Schön’s reflective model:

Further reading:


Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by Doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford. Further Education Unit.

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